Labor and Employment

Laws Against Employment Discrimination in Maryland

By Lisa Guerin, ​J.D., Boalt Hall at the University of California at Berkeley
Maryland employees are protected from workplace discrimination by state and federal laws.

Employees in Maryland are protected from workplace discrimination based on certain traits, such as age or ethnicity. Congress and the Maryland legislature has decided that these traits, called protected characteristics, are not a fair basis for employment decisions—including who to hire, who to fire, and how much to pay employees.

Below, we explain your rights under the state and federal laws that prohibit employment discrimination, including which employers must comply with the laws and which employees are protected. (For more on this topic, see our employment discrimination and harassment page.)

Federal Laws Banning Employment Discrimination

Federal laws—including Title VII of the Civil Rights Act, the Age Discrimination in Employment Act, and the Americans with Disabilities Act—protect employees in all 50 states against discrimination based on:

  • race
  • color
  • religion
  • sex
  • pregnancy
  • national origin
  • age (applies only to employees who are 40 years of age or older)
  • genetic information, or
  • physical or mental disability.

These federal laws make it illegal for employers of a certain size to discriminate in all aspects of employment, including hiring, benefits, promotions, pay, discipline, and termination. You are protected from discrimination if you work for a private employer with at least 15 employees (or 20 employees, for age discrimination).

Government employees are protected from discrimination, too: All employees of the federal government are covered, and all employees of state and local governments are covered by the Age Discrimination in Employment Act. For other types of discrimination, state and local government employees are protected if they work for an agency with at least 15 employees.

Maryland Laws Banning Employment Discrimination

The Maryland law prohibiting discrimination applies to the state as well as private employers with at least 15 employees. These employers may not discriminate against employees or applicants based on:

  • sex (including pregnancy, childbirth, and related conditions)
  • sexual orientation
  • gender identity
  • marital status
  • race or color
  • ethnicity or national origin
  • religion
  • age
  • disability, or
  • genetic information.

A separate law prohibits employers with at least 15 employees from discriminating against employees because of their membership in the Civil Air Patrol. This law protects only employees who have worked for the employer for at least 90 days.

Agencies That Enforce Discrimination Laws

The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) is the government agency that enforces federal laws prohibiting workplace discrimination. The EEOC website provides details on Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the primary federal law that prohibits employment discrimination, as well as the Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967, the Americans with Disabilities Act, and other federal laws. See Laws Enforced by EEOC for details. See our article on how to file an EEOC claim or visit the EEOC’s website for more information.

In Maryland, the Commission on Civil Rights enforces the laws that prohibit job discrimination in the state. For more information about the law, including details about filing a complaint, visit the Commission’s website.

Finding an Employment Law Attorney in Maryland

If you believe you have been discriminated against at work, you should talk to an experienced Maryland employment lawyer. A lawyer can assess your situation, explain the laws that might apply, and evaluate the strength of your claims. A lawyer can also advise you on how to proceed, including filing a complaint or lawsuit, and what damages might be available if you win.

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